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Alternative title: Identifies a title in another language, a title written differently in several sources, etc. Like the main title, it covers the film or series in its entirety.

Archival holding: Identifies the name of the archives conserving a copy of the film or series. Not to be confused with “Other original sources” which lists the institutions and archives that are holding documentation about a film or series (but not the films themselves). The location of the archive and other relevant information is included.

Attributed title: Sometimes a film is not associated with a title in any original source. For example, a review in a local newspaper may provide only a description of the film, resulting in no definitive title. In this case, the film is given a title adapted from the published description in the original source, which becomes the main title. Square brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around attributed titles.

Catalogue number: A number assigned to the film by the distribution or production agent. It may be a combination of numbers and letters.

Copyright date and number: The copyright date is the date that the film was registered in the copyright bureau of the Library of Congress. Every copyrighted film is accompanied by a copyright number.

Directors: The director’s country of origin is included whenever possible. Since the distinction between directors and cinematographers is particularly difficult to establish for films shot during the period covered by the filmography, the individual is entered as both a director and cinematographer. When the source of the information is deemed uncertain or unreliable, square brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around the name of the director.

Film comments: Comments written by the filmography team concerning a film’s reception, production, distribution, etc.

Films in the Series: A list of the titles of individual films contained in a series. A series may include films shot in locations other than Ontario. On occasion, all titles in a series are included in the filmography, not just those made in Ontario..

Genre: The genre serves to characterize an ensemble of films grouped according to shared similar elements. In the filmography, there will be references to epoch names (e.g., actualities, etc.), as well as contemporary names (e.g., comedies, documentaries, etc).

Length: A film’s length is given in feet, meters, reels, minutes or seconds. Chevrons (< >) are placed around the length to indicate it came from an unreliable source, and square brackets ( [ ] ) are used to identify an uncertain length. Other details are provided when they are available.

Main title: The main title designates the definite title or the most reliable title attributed to a film. Signs are placed around the main title to indicate the reliability of the title. A title’s reliability depends on its source. If no signs are displayed, the source is deemed reliable and certain; chevrons (< >) are placed around titles coming from unreliable period sources; and square brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around titles that come from uncertain sources such as descriptions that are “attributed.” Attributed titles are assigned by the filmography team and based on the information gleaned from the description of the film. See “Attributed title” and “Signs.”

Note: Where there are different films with the same or similar title, the filmography team has attributed dates (and in some instances, the producer) to each title in order to distinguish one film from another. In these instances, square brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around the dates only and not around the main title; e.g.; “Niagara Falls [AM&B, Sep. 1896],” “Niagara Falls [Pathe, 1907],” “Niagara Falls [Kinemacolor, 1912-1913]” etc.

Other Original Sources: Refers to the information concerning original sources that are not published. These are generally from archived documents, usually fonds. The “title source” of the fonds, the “accession number” attributed by the conserving institution of the fonds, and the name of the “holding institution” is included. A direct link to the actual record is provided for on-line sources.

Original Sources – Monographs: “Original Sources” designates primary sources printed at the time of the film’s production and exhibition. The term “Monograph” designates single printed works, whether they are books or catalogues. A transcription of the text found in the citation is provided when available.

Original Sources – Periodicals: The term “Periodicals” includes newspaper publications as well as trade journals, fan magazines, bulletins, and programs. A transcription of the primary source text found in the periodical is provided when available.

Other comments: Provides comments indirectly concerning a film or series: additional remarks or information about the context of production or distribution, on the subject of the film or on cinematographers, etc.

Other Credits: The names of the individuals and companies that participated in the film or series, such as co-producers, cameramen, screenwriters, actors or participants. Producers and directors are credited in separate sections. Along with the role, the precise title of the individual is shown where possible. When the source of the information is deemed uncertain or unreliable, square brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around the name of the individual.

Other Sources – Monographs: This section designates information concerning monographs that were published after the end of the production and the commercial marketing of the film or series. They include catalogues produced by institutions and history books. A transcription of the text found in the monograph source is provided when available.

Other Sources – Non-Print: Denotes information relative to non-print sources such as internet databases, CD-ROMs, etc. In the case of internet sources, a direct link to the website is provided.

Other Sources – Periodicals: These are usually articles produced by historians after the production and the commercial exploitation of the film or series. A transcription of the text found in the monograph source is provided when available.

Producers: The producer of a film or series may be an individual or a company. The country of origin of the individual or company is included whenever possible. When the source of the information is deemed uncertain or unreliable, square brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around the name of the production agent.

Production date: The period the film or series was shot; also known as the film shooting date. Where the date is uncertain or lacking, an estimated date is provided, based on: i) the subject of the film or series; ii) the dates of release and exhibition; and, iii) the nationality of the production agency. Uncertain shooting dates and continuous filming are indicated in brackets coming after the production date. The “order” of filming indicates the shooting chronology for films that were shot the same day or same period.

Release dates: The release date or distribution date of a film or series is usually associated with a distribution company or individual but not in every case. The distribution agent and the territory that the agent covered are displayed when that information has been discovered in our research of the trade and daily press at the time of the film’s or series’ release (in advertisements, reviews, descriptions, etc.).

Screening dates: The screening date(s) refers to any public projection of the film or series in Canadian territory. Venues and their location(s) are given where possible.

Series: A series is a group or succession of films that share a general title at the moment of their distribution or exhibition. The title of the series can be traced back to an original source such as a local newspaper, trade journal, catalogue, etc. Each film in a series will have its own file. Some series may include films that were not made in Ontario.

Series in which the film belongs: Each film in a series has its own record. Within that record, a link is created back to the series that the film comes from. Some films may appear in several different series. In such a case, the title of each series is given.

Shooting locations: Denotes the actual location, region and province where a film or series was shot. A “location” is defined as a city, town or geographical area such as a body of water, mountain, archipelago, etc. A “region” refers to the administrative centre for the location. For example, a film shot in High Park, Toronto, Ontario will be displayed as Toronto (Toronto), Ontario.

The shooting location for a series is not shown unless all the films were shot in the same location. The shooting location is not provided when the individual films in a series were shot in different locations.

Various location names have changed since the period when the films/series were shot. Various municipalities were merged or annexed; others simply modified their names. In such cases, the name of the original location will also be provided, along with the name of the actual or current location.

Chevrons (< >) are placed around a shooting location when the source associating the shooting location to a film does not seem entirely trustworthy or is subject to interpretation.

Square brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around a shooting location only when a film or series is presumed to have been filmed in a particular location, but there has been no proof in the information sources.

Note: Niagara Falls was a popular subject for filming but many sources did not indicate whether the film(s) cited were shot from the Canadian side or the American side. In these instances, the filmography team has attributed both Niagara Falls, Ontario and Niagara Falls, New York as the shooting location. Furthermore, since films of Niagara Falls shot from the American side also are of interest to us, we have included them in the filmography.

Signs: Signs placed around a title indicate the level of reliability of a title and depends on its source. There are three options:
  • No sign is given if the data is certain: either the title came from an original source that emanated directly from a production agent or from a distribution agent; catalogues; bulletins; producer or distributor advertisements printed in trade journals or local newspapers.

  • Chevrons (< >) are placed around titles coming from unreliable original sources. These include articles published in trade journals and local newspapers; and lists of new releases in trade journals.

  • Square Brackets ( [ ] ) are placed around titles coming from other sources that are deemed uncertain or result in attributed titles. A title adapted from a published description in an original source constitutes an attributed title and should be placed between square brackets

Specific title: Denotes a title that only applies to a part of a film. In newsreels containing multiple subjects, only the specific title(s) of the particular segment(s) filmed in Ontario are indicated.

Subject: The subject serves to group films that deal with the same theme (e.g., waterfalls) or the same event (e.g., scenes of soldiers leaving for the Boer War). The location where an event occurs is provided.

Telegraphic code: An arbitrary term associated with the film by the distribution or production agent. This code simplified the ordering process, as it was unique and shorter than the actual title.

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